“The E.P.A. is ignoring the cumulative economic damage new regulations will cause,” said Steve Miller, president of the American Coalition for Clean Coal Electricity, a group of coal-burning utilities. “America’s coal-fueled electric industry has been doing its part for the environment and the economy, but our industry needs adequate time to install clean coal technologies to comply with new regulations. Unfortunately, E.P.A. doesn’t seem to care.”

An industry-financed study found that new air pollution rules would cost tens of thousands of jobs and raise electricity rates by more than 20 percent in some parts of the country.

Senator James M. Inhofe, Republican of Oklahoma, called the new rule an impediment to economic growth and job creation.
“True environmental progress will not come from these costly, heavy-handed regulations that harm the very people E.P.A. claims to protect,” Mr. Inhofe said in a statement. “Real progress on clean air is best achieved through common-sense multipollutant legislation that streamlines the Clean Air Act’s many redundant and overlapping mandates.”

“The bottom line,” he added, “is that reducing emissions does not have to be this expensive — the Obama E.P.A. just wants it to be.”